Welcome!

SDN Journal Authors: Chris Colosimo, Jason Bloomberg, Scott Davis, Vinod Mohan, Mike Wood

Related Topics: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning , @CloudExpo

Artificial Intelligence: Article

AWS Broke the Internet Again or, Better, a Typo | @CloudExpo #AI #ML #DL

An AI-defined infrastructure can help to avoid service disruptions

Amazon Web Services (AWS) broke the Internet again or better "a typo". On February 28, 2017, an Amazon S3 service disruption in AWS' oldest region US-EAST-1 shuts down several major websites and services like Slack, Trello, Quora, Business Insider, Coursera and Time Inc. Other users were reporting that they were also unable to control devices which were connected via the Internet of Things since IFTTT was also down. Those kinds of disruptions are becoming more and more business critical for today's digital economy. To prevent these situations, cloud users should always consider the shared responsibility model in the public cloud. However, there are also ways where Artificial Intelligence (AI) can help. This article describes that an AI-defined Infrastructure respectively an AI-powered IT management system can help to avoid service disruptions of public cloud providers.

Amazon S3 Service Disruption - What has happened
After every service disruption AWS writes a summary of what was going on during an incident. This is what happened on the morning of February 28.

"The Amazon Simple Storage Service (S3) team was debugging an issue causing the S3 billing system to progress more slowly than expected. At 9:37AM PST, an authorized S3 team member using an established playbook executed a command which was intended to remove a small number of servers for one of the S3 subsystems that is used by the S3 billing process. Unfortunately, one of the inputs to the command was entered incorrectly and a larger set of servers was removed than intended. The servers that were inadvertently removed supported two other S3 subsystems.  One of these subsystems, the index subsystem, manages the metadata and location information of all S3 objects in the region. This subsystem is necessary to serve all GET, LIST, PUT, and DELETE requests. The second subsystem, the placement subsystem, manages allocation of new storage and requires the index subsystem to be functioning properly to correctly operate. The placement subsystem is used during PUT requests to allocate storage for new objects. Removing a significant portion of the capacity caused each of these systems to require a full restart. While these subsystems were being restarted, S3 was unable to service requests. Other AWS services in the US-EAST-1 Region that rely on S3 for storage, including the S3 console, Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2) new instance launches, Amazon Elastic Block Store (EBS) volumes (when data was needed from a S3 snapshot), and AWS Lambda were also impacted while the S3 APIs were unavailable."

Read more under "Summary of the Amazon S3 Service Disruption in the Northern Virginia (US-EAST-1) Region".

Bottom line, a typo crashed the AWS powered Internet! AWS outages already have a long history and the more AWS customers running their web infrastructure on the cloud giant, the more issues end customers will experience in the future. According to SimilarTech only Amazon S3 is already used by 152,123 websites and 124,577 unique domains.

However, following the philosophy of "Everything fails all the time (Werner Vogels, CTO Amazon.com)" means if you are using AWS you must "Design for Failure".  Something cloud role model and video on demand provider Netflix is doing in perfection. In doing so, Netflix has developed its Simian Army an open source toolset everyone can use to run a cloud infrastructure on AWS high-available.

Netflix "simply" uses the two levels of redundancy AWS offers. Multiple regions and multiple availability zones (AZ). Multiple regions are the masterclass of using AWS, very complex and sophisticated since you must build and manage entire separated infrastructure environments within AWS' worldwide distributed cloud infrastructure. Multiple AZs are the preferred and "easiest" way for high availability (HA) on AWS. In this case, the infrastructure is built within more than one data center (AZ). In doing so, a single region HA architecture is deployed in at least two or more AZs - a load balancer in front of it is controlling the data traffic.

However, even if "typos" shouldn't happen the recent accident shows, that human error is still the biggest issue running IT systems. In addition, you can blame AWS only to a certain extend since the public cloud is about shared responsibility.

Shared Responsibility in the Public Cloud
An important public cloud detail is the self-service. Depending on its DNA the providers are only taking responsibility for specific areas. The customer is responsible for the rest. In the public cloud, it is about sharing responsibilities - this model is called Shared Responsibility. The provider and its customers divide the field of duties among themselves. In doing so, the customer's self-responsibility plays a major role. In the context of IaaS utilization, the provider is responsible for the operations and security of the physical environment. He is taking care of:

  • Set up and maintenance of the entire data center infrastructure.
  • Deployment of compute power, storage, network and managed services (like databases) and other micro services.
  • Provisioning the virtualization layer customers are using to demand virtual resources at any time.
  • Deployment of services and tools customers can use to manage their areas of responsibility.

The customer is responsible for the operations and security of the logical environment. This includes:

  • Set up of the virtual infrastructure.
  • Installation of operating systems.
  • Configuration of networks and firewall settings.
  • Operations of own applications and self-developed (micro) services.

Thus, the customer is responsible for the operations and security of his own infrastructure environment and the systems, applications, services, as well as stored data on top of it. However, providers like Amazon Web Services or Microsoft Azure provide comprehensive tools and services customers can use e.g. to encrypt their data as well as ensure identity and access controls. In addition, enablement services (micro services) exist that customers can adopt to develop own applications more quickly and easily.

In doing so, the customer is all alone in its area of responsibility and thus must take self-responsibility. However, this part of the shared responsibility can be done by an AI-defined IT management system respectively an AI-defined Infrastructure.

An AI-defined Infrastructure can help to avoid Service Disruptions
An AI-defined Infrastructure can help to avoid service disruptions in the public cloud. However, the basis of this kind of infrastructure is a General AI that combines three major human abilities that enable enterprises to tackle IT and business process challenges.

  • Understanding: By creating a semantic data map the General AI understands the world of the company in which its IT and business exists.
  • Learning: By creating Knowledge Items the General AI learns best practices and reasoning from experts. Knowledge is taught in atomic pieces of information (Knowledge Items) that represent separate steps of a process.
  • Solving: With machine reasoning problems are solved in ambiguous and changing environments. The General AI dynamically reacts to the ever-changing context, selecting the best course of action. Based on machine learning the results are optimized through experiments.

To put this into the context of an AWS service disruption:

  • Understanding: The General AI creates a semantic map of the AWS environment as part of the world in which the company exists.
  • Learning: IT experts create Knowledge Items while they are configuring and working with AWS from what the General AI learns best practices. Thus, the experts teach the General AI contextual knowledge that includes what, when, where and why something needs to be done - for example when a specific AWS service is not responding.
  • Solving: The General AI dynamically reacts to incidents based on the learned knowledge. Thus, the AI (probably) knows what to do at this very moment - even if no high availability setup was considered from the beginning.

Frankly speaking, everything described above is no magic. Like every new born organism an AI-defined Infrastructure needs to be trained but afterwards can work autonomously as well as can detect anomalies as well as service disruptions in the public cloud and solve them. Therefore, you need the knowledge of experts who have a deep understanding of AWS and how the cloud works in general. These experts need to teach the General AI with their contextual knowledge that includes not only what, when and where but also why. They have to teach the AI with atomic pieces (Knowledge Items, KI) that can be indexed and prioritized by the AI. Context and indexing enable this KIs to be combined to form many solutions.

KIs created by various IT experts create pooled expertise that is further optimized by machine selection of best knowledge combinations for problem resolution. This type of collaborative learning improves process time task by task. However, the number of possible permutations grows exponentially with added knowledge. Connected to a knowledge core, the General AI continuously optimizes performance by eliminating unnecessary steps and even changing routes based on other contextual learning. And the bigger the semantic graph and knowledge core gets, the better and more dynamically the infrastructure can act in terms of service disruptions.

On a final note, do not underestimate the "power of we"! Our research at Arago revealed that with an overlap of 33 percent in basic knowledge, this knowledge can and is used outside a specific organizational environment, i.e. across different client environments. The reuse of knowledge within a client is up to 80 percent. Thus, exchanging basic knowledge within a community becomes imperative from an efficiency perspective and improve the abilities of the General AI.

More Stories By Rene Buest

Rene Buest is Director Market Research & Technology Evangelism at Arago. Prior to that he was Senior Analyst and Cloud Practice Lead at Crisp Research, Principal Analyst at New Age Disruption and member of the worldwide Gigaom Research Analyst Network. At this time Rene was considered as top cloud computing analyst in Germany and one of the worldwide top analysts in this area. In addition, he was one of the world’s top cloud computing influencers and belongs to the top 100 cloud computing experts on Twitter and Google+. Since the mid-90s he is focused on the strategic use of information technology in businesses and the IT impact on our society as well as disruptive technologies.

Rene Buest is the author of numerous professional technology articles. He regularly writes for well-known IT publications like Computerwoche, CIO Magazin, LANline as well as Silicon.de and is cited in German and international media – including New York Times, Forbes Magazin, Handelsblatt, Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, Wirtschaftswoche, Computerwoche, CIO, Manager Magazin and Harvard Business Manager. Furthermore Rene Buest is speaker and participant of experts rounds. He is founder of CloudUser.de and writes about cloud computing, IT infrastructure, technologies, management and strategies. He holds a diploma in computer engineering from the Hochschule Bremen (Dipl.-Informatiker (FH)) as well as a M.Sc. in IT-Management and Information Systems from the FHDW Paderborn.

@CloudExpo Stories
SYS-CON Events announced today that Juniper Networks (NYSE: JNPR), an industry leader in automated, scalable and secure networks, will exhibit at SYS-CON's 20th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Juniper Networks challenges the status quo with products, solutions and services that transform the economics of networking. The company co-innovates with customers and partners to deliver automated, scalable and secure network...
SYS-CON Events announced today that CA Technologies has been named "Platinum Sponsor" of SYS-CON's 20th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, New York, and 21st International Cloud Expo, which will take place in November in Silicon Valley, California.
NHK, Japan Broadcasting, will feature the upcoming @ThingsExpo Silicon Valley in a special 'Internet of Things' and smart technology documentary that will be filmed on the expo floor between November 3 to 5, 2015, in Santa Clara. NHK is the sole public TV network in Japan equivalent to the BBC in the UK and the largest in Asia with many award-winning science and technology programs. Japanese TV is producing a documentary about IoT and Smart technology and will be covering @ThingsExpo Silicon Val...
As DevOps methodologies expand their reach across the enterprise, organizations face the daunting challenge of adapting related cloud strategies to ensure optimal alignment, from managing complexity to ensuring proper governance. How can culture, automation, legacy apps and even budget be reexamined to enable this ongoing shift within the modern software factory?
New competitors, disruptive technologies, and growing expectations are pushing every business to both adopt and deliver new digital services. This ‘Digital Transformation’ demands rapid delivery and continuous iteration of new competitive services via multiple channels, which in turn demands new service delivery techniques – including DevOps. In this power panel at @DevOpsSummit 20th Cloud Expo, moderated by DevOps Conference Co-Chair Andi Mann, panelists will examine how DevOps helps to meet th...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Hitachi Data Systems, a wholly owned subsidiary of Hitachi LTD., will exhibit at SYS-CON's 20th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City. Hitachi Data Systems (HDS) will be featuring the Hitachi Content Platform (HCP) portfolio. This is the industry’s only offering that allows organizations to bring together object storage, file sync and share, cloud storage gateways, and sophisticated search an...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Hitachi, the leading provider the Internet of Things and Digital Transformation, will exhibit at SYS-CON's 20th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Hitachi Data Systems, a wholly owned subsidiary of Hitachi, Ltd., offers an integrated portfolio of services and solutions that enable digital transformation through enhanced data management, governance, mobility and analytics. We help globa...
@DevOpsSummit has been named the ‘Top DevOps Influencer' by iTrend. iTred processes millions of conversations, tweets, interactions, news articles, press releases, blog posts - and extract meaning form them and analyzes mobile and desktop software platforms used to communicate, various metadata (such as geo location), and automation tools. In overall placement, @DevOpsSummit ranked as the number one ‘DevOps Influencer' followed by @CloudExpo at third, and @MicroservicesE at 24th.
Blockchain is a shared, secure record of exchange that establishes trust, accountability and transparency across supply chain networks. Supported by the Linux Foundation's open source, open-standards based Hyperledger Project, Blockchain has the potential to improve regulatory compliance, reduce cost and time for product recall as well as advance trade. Are you curious about Blockchain and how it can provide you with new opportunities for innovation and growth? In her session at 20th Cloud Exp...
Cloud promises the agility required by today’s digital businesses. As organizations adopt cloud based infrastructures and services, their IT resources become increasingly dynamic and hybrid in nature. Managing these require modern IT operations and tools. In his session at 20th Cloud Expo, Raj Sundaram, Senior Principal Product Manager at CA Technologies, will discuss how to modernize your IT operations in order to proactively manage your hybrid cloud and IT environments. He will be sharing be...
While some vendors scramble to create and sell you a fancy solution for monitoring your spanking new Amazon Lambdas, hear how you can do it on the cheap using just built-in Java APIs yourself. By exploiting a little-known fact that Lambdas aren’t exactly single threaded, you can effectively identify hot spots in your serverless code. In his session at 20th Cloud Expo, David Martin, Principal Product Owner at CA Technologies, will give a live demonstration and code walkthrough, showing how to o...
The explosion of new web/cloud/IoT-based applications and the data they generate are transforming our world right before our eyes. In this rush to adopt these new technologies, organizations are often ignoring fundamental questions concerning who owns the data and failing to ask for permission to conduct invasive surveillance of their customers. Organizations that are not transparent about how their systems gather data telemetry without offering shared data ownership risk product rejection, regu...
In his keynote at 19th Cloud Expo, Sheng Liang, co-founder and CEO of Rancher Labs, discussed the technological advances and new business opportunities created by the rapid adoption of containers. With the success of Amazon Web Services (AWS) and various open source technologies used to build private clouds, cloud computing has become an essential component of IT strategy. However, users continue to face challenges in implementing clouds, as older technologies evolve and newer ones like Docker c...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Hitachi, the leading provider the Internet of Things and Digital Transformation, will exhibit at SYS-CON's 20th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Hitachi Data Systems, a wholly owned subsidiary of Hitachi, Ltd., offers an integrated portfolio of services and solutions that enable digital transformation through enhanced data management, governance, mobility and analytics. We help globa...
Cloud Expo, Inc. has announced today that Aruna Ravichandran, vice president of DevOps Product and Solutions Marketing at CA Technologies, has been named co-conference chair of DevOps at Cloud Expo 2017. The @DevOpsSummit at Cloud Expo New York will take place on June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, New York, and @DevOpsSummit at Cloud Expo Silicon Valley will take place Oct. 31-Nov. 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA.
SYS-CON Events announced today that SoftLayer, an IBM Company, has been named “Gold Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 18th Cloud Expo, which will take place on June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York, New York. SoftLayer, an IBM Company, provides cloud infrastructure as a service from a growing number of data centers and network points of presence around the world. SoftLayer’s customers range from Web startups to global enterprises.
@DevOpsSummit at Cloud taking place June 6-8, 2017, at Javits Center, New York City, is co-located with the 20th International Cloud Expo and will feature technical sessions from a rock star conference faculty and the leading industry players in the world. The widespread success of cloud computing is driving the DevOps revolution in enterprise IT. Now as never before, development teams must communicate and collaborate in a dynamic, 24/7/365 environment. There is no time to wait for long developm...
With major technology companies and startups seriously embracing IoT strategies, now is the perfect time to attend @ThingsExpo 2016 in New York. Learn what is going on, contribute to the discussions, and ensure that your enterprise is as "IoT-Ready" as it can be! Internet of @ThingsExpo, taking place June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, New York, is co-located with 20th Cloud Expo and will feature technical sessions from a rock star conference faculty and the leading industry p...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Progress, a global leader in application development, has been named “Bronze Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 20th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Enterprises today are rapidly adopting the cloud, while continuing to retain business-critical/sensitive data inside the firewall. This is creating two separate data silos – one inside the firewall and the other outside the firewall. Cloud ISVs oft...
Five years ago development was seen as a dead-end career, now it’s anything but – with an explosion in mobile and IoT initiatives increasing the demand for skilled engineers. But apart from having a ready supply of great coders, what constitutes true ‘DevOps Royalty’? It’ll be the ability to craft resilient architectures, supportability, security everywhere across the software lifecycle. In his keynote at @DevOpsSummit at 20th Cloud Expo, Jeffrey Scheaffer, GM and SVP, Continuous Delivery Busine...