Welcome!

SDN Journal Authors: Elizabeth White, Liz McMillan, David Paquette, Sal Fernando, Nate Lindstrom

Related Topics: SDN Journal, Containers Expo Blog

SDN Journal: Blog Feed Post

Data Center Architecture: Together and Apart

The datacenter represents a diverse set of orchestrated resources bound together by the applications they serve

The challenge in architecting, building, and managing data centers is one of balance. There are forces competing to both push together and pull apart datacenter resources. Finding an equilibrium point that is technological sustainable, operationally viable, and business friendly is challenging. The result is frequently a set of compromises that outweigh the advantages.

Logically together

The datacenter represents a diverse set of orchestrated resources bound together by the applications they serve. At its most simplest, these resources are physically co-located. At its extreme, these resources are geographically distributed across many sites. Whatever the physical layout, these resources are under pressure to be treated as a single logical group.

Resource collaboration - The datacenter is a collection of compute and storage resources that must work in concert in support of application workloads. The simple requirement of coordination creates an inward force pulling resources closer together, even if only logically. How can multiple elements work together towards a common goal if they are completely separate?

The answer is that they cannot. And as IT moves increasingly towards distributed applications, the interdependence between resources only grows.

Interestingly, the performance advantages of distributed architectures are only meaningful when communication between servers is uninhibited. If the network that makes communication possible slows down, the efficacy of the distributed architecture decreases. This means that datacenter architects must solve simultaneously for compute and storage demand, and the interconnect capacity required between them.

Resource availability - Building out a datacenter is an exercise in matching resource capacity to demand. But not just in aggregate.

Individual applications, tenants, and geographies all place localized demands on datacenter resources. If the aggregate demand is sufficient but the resources exist in separate resource pools, you end up in a perpetual state of mismatch. There is always too much or too little workload capacity. The former means you have overbuilt. The latter leaves you wanting for more, which oddly enough means you end up having to overbuild.

Combatting these resource islands requires pulling resources closer together. In the most simple case, this is a physical act. But even if resources cannot be physically co-located, there are entire classes of technologies whose primary function is to allow physically separate resources to behave as if they are in close proximity.

Of course this does not come without a cost. The complexity of managing the disparate technologies required to logically pool physically separate resources can be prohibitively difficult. Even the most skilled specialists have to invest time in creating a properly engineered fabric between sites that accounts for queuing, prioritization, load balancing, and so on. The number of protocols and technologies required is high, and the volume of devices over which they must be applied can be huge. The result is a level of complexity that makes the network more expensive to manage and more difficult to change.

Organizational process - Friction is greatest at boundaries. Whenever a task requires involvement across different organizations or teams, the act of human coordination imposes a tax on both effort and time. In larger organizations, the handoff between teams might be automated to reduce communication mistakes (as with a ticketing system), but the shift in context is still expensive.

This creates organizational pressure to pull together things that might otherwise be separate. If distributed resources can be logically centralized and managed within a common organization, it reduces the dependence on outside teams. The removal of boundaries from common workflows lowers organizational friction and makes easier the overall task of managing the infrastructure.

Physically separate

At the same time that forces are pulling things together, there are equally strong oppositional forces exerting outward pressure on datacenter resources.

Business continuity - For many companies, the datacenter represents a mission critical element of their infrastructure. For companies whose existence depends on the presence of the resources within the datacenter (be they data, servers, or applications), it is untenably risky to rely on a single physical site. This exerts an outward force on resources as companies must create multiple physical sites, typically separated by enough distance that a disaster would not meaningfully impact all sites.

Despite the operational desire to keep things together, the risk to the business dictates that resources be physically separate.

Natural expansion - As resources are added to a datacenter, they are typically installed in racks in relative close proximity to each other. When racks are empty, there is no reason to unnecessarily create physical separation between resources working in concert. Over time, adjacent rack space is filled through the natural expansion of compute, storage, and networking capacity.

As equipment expands, available rack space is depleted, and new racks and rows are populated. Eventually, the device sprawl can occupy entire data centers.

Imagine now that a cluster of servers occupies a rack in one corner of the datacenter. If that cluster is to be expanded, where does the next server go? If the nearby racks are already built out, that resource must be installed some physical distance away from the resources with which it must coordinate.

It is near impossible to plan for all future growth at the time of datacenter inception. Leaving enough space in adjacent racks to account for a decade of growth is impractically expensive. A sparsely populated datacenter suffers from poor space utilization, challenging power distribution, and difficult cabling. Thus, the mere act of expansion actually exerts an outward force leading to physically distributed resources.

Real estate - Sometimes, even when architects want to keep resources together, physical limitations create problems. There is no more immovable object than real estate (which serves as a proxy for all of space, power, and HVAC). In some cases, it is impossible to build out either laterally or even up. In other cases, there is no additional power to be had from the grid. Either of these scenarios forces an expansion to another site, which requires the physical separation of resources that might be expected to function in concert.

Additionally, as land rates change and technologies evolve, the best spots for data centers are not always known. It is difficult at best to predict with enough certainty how a physical site will evolve over an arbitrarily long time horizon. For example, not long ago, the thought of building cooling-hungry data centers in the hot desert was foreign. Today, Las Vegas is home to some of the most cutting edge facilities in the world. This means that geographical dispersion is likely a certainty for large companies. The forces pulling resources physically apart are unlikely to be neutralized.

Finding a balance

Given the strong forces working to keep resources logically together and the equally strong forces keeping them physically separate, how does anyone find a balance?

The price for balance is cost and complexity. You pay for reach directly, and control requires complexity. Both translate into higher carrying costs for the infrastructure. The push-pull dynamic in datacenters is not going away anytime soon. In fact, a move towards more distributed applications will only make harder the balancing act that already exists.

Newer technology offerings like SDN and datacenter fabrics offer some hope, but only insofar as they offer alternatives to the existing problems. Whatever the solution, architects will need to evaluate approaches based not just on the features but on the long-term costs of those features.

[Today’s fun fact: “Way” is the most frequently used noun in the English language. No way!]

The post Datacenter architecture: Together and apart appeared first on Plexxi.

More Stories By Michael Bushong

The best marketing efforts leverage deep technology understanding with a highly-approachable means of communicating. Plexxi's Vice President of Marketing Michael Bushong has acquired these skills having spent 12 years at Juniper Networks where he led product management, product strategy and product marketing organizations for Juniper's flagship operating system, Junos. Michael spent the last several years at Juniper leading their SDN efforts across both service provider and enterprise markets. Prior to Juniper, Michael spent time at database supplier Sybase, and ASIC design tool companies Synopsis and Magma Design Automation. Michael's undergraduate work at the University of California Berkeley in advanced fluid mechanics and heat transfer lend new meaning to the marketing phrase "This isn't rocket science."

@CloudExpo Stories
With so much going on in this space you could be forgiven for thinking you were always working with yesterday’s technologies. So much change, so quickly. What do you do if you have to build a solution from the ground up that is expected to live in the field for at least 5-10 years? This is the challenge we faced when we looked to refresh our existing 10-year-old custom hardware stack to measure the fullness of trash cans and compactors.
Extreme Computing is the ability to leverage highly performant infrastructure and software to accelerate Big Data, machine learning, HPC, and Enterprise applications. High IOPS Storage, low-latency networks, in-memory databases, GPUs and other parallel accelerators are being used to achieve faster results and help businesses make better decisions. In his session at 18th Cloud Expo, Michael O'Neill, Strategic Business Development at NVIDIA, focused on some of the unique ways extreme computing is...
The emerging Internet of Everything creates tremendous new opportunities for customer engagement and business model innovation. However, enterprises must overcome a number of critical challenges to bring these new solutions to market. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Michael Martin, CTO/CIO at nfrastructure, outlined these key challenges and recommended approaches for overcoming them to achieve speed and agility in the design, development and implementation of Internet of Everything solutions wi...
Cloud computing is being adopted in one form or another by 94% of enterprises today. Tens of billions of new devices are being connected to The Internet of Things. And Big Data is driving this bus. An exponential increase is expected in the amount of information being processed, managed, analyzed, and acted upon by enterprise IT. This amazing is not part of some distant future - it is happening today. One report shows a 650% increase in enterprise data by 2020. Other estimates are even higher....
With over 720 million Internet users and 40–50% CAGR, the Chinese Cloud Computing market has been booming. When talking about cloud computing, what are the Chinese users of cloud thinking about? What is the most powerful force that can push them to make the buying decision? How to tap into them? In his session at 18th Cloud Expo, Yu Hao, CEO and co-founder of SpeedyCloud, answered these questions and discussed the results of SpeedyCloud’s survey.
SYS-CON Events announced today that Isomorphic Software will exhibit at DevOps Summit at 19th International Cloud Expo, which will take place on November 1–3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Isomorphic Software provides the SmartClient HTML5/AJAX platform, the most advanced technology for building rich, cutting-edge enterprise web applications for desktop and mobile. SmartClient combines the productivity and performance of traditional desktop software with the simp...
Today we can collect lots and lots of performance data. We build beautiful dashboards and even have fancy query languages to access and transform the data. Still performance data is a secret language only a couple of people understand. The more business becomes digital the more stakeholders are interested in this data including how it relates to business. Some of these people have never used a monitoring tool before. They have a question on their mind like “How is my application doing” but no id...
Actian Corporation has announced the latest version of the Actian Vector in Hadoop (VectorH) database, generally available at the end of July. VectorH is based on the same query engine that powers Actian Vector, which recently doubled the TPC-H benchmark record for non-clustered systems at the 3000GB scale factor (see tpc.org/3323). The ability to easily ingest information from different data sources and rapidly develop queries to make better business decisions is becoming increasingly importan...
SYS-CON Events announced today that 910Telecom will exhibit at the 19th International Cloud Expo, which will take place on November 1–3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Housed in the classic Denver Gas & Electric Building, 910 15th St., 910Telecom is a carrier-neutral telecom hotel located in the heart of Denver. Adjacent to CenturyLink, AT&T, and Denver Main, 910Telecom offers connectivity to all major carriers, Internet service providers, Internet backbones and ...
Traditional on-premises data centers have long been the domain of modern data platforms like Apache Hadoop, meaning companies who build their business on public cloud were challenged to run Big Data processing and analytics at scale. But recent advancements in Hadoop performance, security, and most importantly cloud-native integrations, are giving organizations the ability to truly gain value from all their data. In his session at 19th Cloud Expo, David Tishgart, Director of Product Marketing ...
As the world moves toward more DevOps and Microservices, application deployment to the cloud ought to become a lot simpler. The Microservices architecture, which is the basis of many new age distributed systems such as OpenStack, NetFlix and so on, is at the heart of Cloud Foundry - a complete developer-oriented Platform as a Service (PaaS) that is IaaS agnostic and supports vCloud, OpenStack and AWS. Serverless computing is revolutionizing computing. In his session at 19th Cloud Expo, Raghav...
SYS-CON Events announced today Telecom Reseller has been named “Media Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 19th International Cloud Expo, which will take place on November 1–3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Telecom Reseller reports on Unified Communications, UCaaS, BPaaS for enterprise and SMBs. They report extensively on both customer premises based solutions such as IP-PBX as well as cloud based and hosted platforms.
Aspose.Total for .NET is the most complete package of all file format APIs for .NET as offered by Aspose. It empowers developers to create, edit, render, print and convert between a wide range of popular document formats within any .NET, C#, ASP.NET and VB.NET applications. Aspose compiles all .NET APIs on a daily basis to ensure that it contains the most up to date versions of each of Aspose .NET APIs. If a new .NET API or a new version of existing APIs is released during the subscription peri...
SYS-CON Events announced today that StarNet Communications will exhibit at the 19th International Cloud Expo, which will take place on November 1–3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. StarNet Communications’ FastX is the industry first cloud-based remote X Windows emulator. Using standard Web browsers (FireFox, Chrome, Safari, etc.) users from around the world gain highly secure access to applications and data hosted on Linux-based servers in a central data center. ...
DevOps at Cloud Expo, taking place Nov 1-3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA, is co-located with 19th Cloud Expo and will feature technical sessions from a rock star conference faculty and the leading industry players in the world. The widespread success of cloud computing is driving the DevOps revolution in enterprise IT. Now as never before, development teams must communicate and collaborate in a dynamic, 24/7/365 environment. There is no time to wait for long dev...
The 19th International Cloud Expo has announced that its Call for Papers is open. Cloud Expo, to be held November 1-3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA, brings together Cloud Computing, Big Data, Internet of Things, DevOps, Digital Transformation, Microservices and WebRTC to one location. With cloud computing driving a higher percentage of enterprise IT budgets every year, it becomes increasingly important to plant your flag in this fast-expanding business opportuni...
StarNet Communications Corp has announced the addition of three Secure Remote Desktop modules to its flagship X-Win32 PC X server. The new modules enable X-Win32 to safely tunnel the remote desktops from Linux and Unix servers to the user’s PC over encrypted SSH. Traditionally, users of PC X servers deploy the XDMCP protocol to display remote desktop environments such as the Gnome and KDE desktops on Linux servers and the CDE environment on Solaris Unix machines. XDMCP is used primarily on comp...
There is growing need for data-driven applications and the need for digital platforms to build these apps. In his session at 19th Cloud Expo, Muddu Sudhakar, VP and GM of Security & IoT at Splunk, will cover different PaaS solutions and Big Data platforms that are available to build applications. In addition, AI and machine learning are creating new requirements that developers need in the building of next-gen apps. The next-generation digital platforms have some of the past platform needs a...
DevOps at Cloud Expo – being held November 1-3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA – announces that its Call for Papers is open. Born out of proven success in agile development, cloud computing, and process automation, DevOps is a macro trend you cannot afford to miss. From showcase success stories from early adopters and web-scale businesses, DevOps is expanding to organizations of all sizes, including the world's largest enterprises – and delivering real results. Am...
Using new techniques of information modeling, indexing, and processing, new cloud-based systems can support cloud-based workloads previously not possible for high-throughput insurance, banking, and case-based applications. In his session at 18th Cloud Expo, John Newton, CTO, Founder and Chairman of Alfresco, described how to scale cloud-based content management repositories to store, manage, and retrieve billions of documents and related information with fast and linear scalability. He addres...