|By Elad Yoran||
|May 19, 2014 10:00 AM EDT||
Encryption in Use – Fact and Fiction
Risk-conscious enterprises across the globe have been reluctant to embrace the public cloud model. For many, compliance requirements are the source of the reluctance. For others, concerns about ceding control of their data to a cloud service provider, without the cloud service provider accepting liability for customer data, is the major hurdle. Conforming to data residency regulations, when implementing a distributed services model, present a further complication. Even as these challenges to adoption loom large, the economics and productivity benefits of cloud-based services remain compelling. For these organizations to make the transition to the cloud, a range of elements must be in place, including continuous monitoring of the cloud service provider’s data center, enforcement of appropriate service level agreements, data classification and definition of internal processes to manage cloud-based services. Encryption in use is a critical piece of this puzzle, since it provides a mechanism for the enterprise to extend their boundary of control to their data stored and processed within the cloud service provider's environment. However, not all encryption in use is created equally, secure, and a generic. A one size fits all approach is likely to fall short in providing a balance between security and functionality.
The Case for Encryption in Use
For almost as long as the field of information security has been in existence, encryption of data at rest and encryption of data in transit have served as cornerstone technologies to prevent access to sensitive, proprietary, confidential or regulated data. Both forms of encryption operate through exchange and presentation of a combination of public and private keys that unlock the encrypted data. The great step forward for modern cryptography was the idea that the key that you use to encrypt your data could be made public while the key that is used to decrypt your data could be kept private. The purpose of both is to ensure that only users or systems with access to the key could access the data.
Encryption in use provides functionality that is almost counter-intuitive to the purpose behind modern encryption for data at rest and data in transit, working to ensure that the data remains in an encrypted state, even as users interact with the data, performing operations like search or sort, for example. However, just like encryption for other states of data, encryption in use serves a clear need. Without encryption in use, organizations cannot retain ownership and control of their data stored and processed in a cloud-based service – whether control is required to address security, compliance, data residency, privacy or governance needs. Encryption in use is similar to format preserving encryption in that it is applied in real time, but allows for a far broader range of cloud service functionality and feature support.
Encryption in use enables enterprises to independently secure their data stored and processed at cloud service providers – while holding on to the encryption keys. The ongoing revelations of government surveillance that are supported by laws compelling cloud service providers to hand over customer data, highlight the challenge that end users face of meeting their obligations to retain direct control of their cloud data. The recent set of recommendations from the Review Group on Intelligence and Communications Technologies appointed by the White House focused on implementing better privacy steps is only the first step in revisiting policies.
Because encryption in use is an emerging area, the technology can be easily misunderstood, or even easily misrepresented. Typically, encryption in use entails the use of a gateway, or proxy, architecture. The user accesses the application via the gateway – whether the application server is in the cloud or on premise. The key to decrypt the data resides in the gateway (or in an integrated HSM), ensuring that data stored and processed at the server is persistently encrypted, even as the encryption is entirely transparent to the user. Were the user to access the server directly, bypassing the gateway, the data would simply appear as a string of encrypted gibberish. As long as the gateway remains under the data owner’s control, only authorized users can gain access to the data stored and processed at the cloud service provider, or other third party.
In the event that the cloud service provider is required to hand over customer data in response to a government subpoena, they must their meet their legal obligation. However, if encryption in use has been implemented, the service provider can only hand over encrypted gibberish. The request for data must then be directed to the entity that holds the encryption keys. Likewise, a rogue administrator, a hacker or government entity would only be able view unintelligible gibberish if they gained access to the user account.
Not Some Kind of Magic
In order to deliver on the promise of encryption in use, the gateway must deliver on a robust set of functionality requirements: comprehensive service functionality and water-tight security based on a strong encryption scheme. What this means in practical terms is that the entirety of the service’s functional elements and behavior must be mapped, and that the encryption scheme must allow for preserving functionality without compromising security. This is because the gateway must recreate the session for the cloud-facing leg, and transpose encrypted data into the flow without disrupting functionality like search, sort and index. Otherwise, the user experience is degraded, and the value proposition of the cloud-based service of improving productivity is undermined.
Vendors face another set of choices: take shortcuts to cover as much ground to provide a superficial sense of security, or invest in extensive R&D work to deliver the optimal balance between functionality and strong security. For instance, vendors can opt to provide encryption for a just a few data fields, out of hundreds or even a few thousand, to encompass a specific subset of the enterprise’s information. Equally, they can choose to implement a cloud data encryption scheme that preserves features relying on referential integrity such as sort, search and index that is easily reversible by attackers.
By way of illustration, if the scheme involves deterministically encrypting words into very short AES blocks, the encoding pattern is consistent enough for common attacks to yield clear text from what might appear to be encrypted text. There are a variety of iterative attacks such as chosen plaintext attacks that will yield clear text if the encryption relies on a simplistic and consistent encoding pattern. So while the data may appear to be encrypted, and less engineering resources are required to support application features and functionality, the data protection in place is barely skin deep.
Encryption in use is not a kind of magic – it requires dedicated engineering expertise, with collaboration between infrastructure, information security and encryption experts. And, the encryption scheme must be tailored to a specific application or service to deliver on the appropriate balance of security and functionality.
Another significant consideration is evaluating encryption in use in the context of a specific application or service. From the customer’s perspective, it is appealing to use a single encryption platform for multiple applications. No customer wants to have to manage multiple appliances, management interfaces and vendors. The reality, however, is that to strike an acceptable balance for any risk conscious organization between security and functionality requires deep application knowledge and encryption-in-use expertise. Dig a little deeper on degree of support, or risk a gamble on production readiness. The degree of support is as critical as the extent of support.
Evaluating Encryption in Use Claims
Can enterprises rely on a standard validation for encryption in use? Precisely because encryption in use is a new area, third-party validation is a critical requirement before it is implemented in production environments. Unfortunately, the current set of standard validation and certification tests have limited applicability.
The most frequently cited third-party validation by vendors in the space is FIPS 140-2 validation. As critical as 140-2 validation is as an evaluation benchmark, and specifically required under some federal procurement mandates, it has some limitations for encryption in use.
Taking a step backward, its important to note the scope of FIPS validation. The process essentially verifies that the algorithms are implemented according to defined specifications. However, it does not provide any validation about how the platform would use the cryptographic module in order to support encryption in use.
For instance, the FIPS validation doesn't outline a set of best practices on how to use the cryptographic module. Instead, it verifies that whenever the system invokes AES encryption, the module performs AES encryption according to the standard specification. FIPS validation is limited to the cryptographic modules used, not the overall integrity of the platform, or the encryption scheme used in production environments. While FIPS validation is an important consideration, enterprises should be aware of its limitations as the sole third party validation for encryption. In an outside world example, validation would demonstrate that a $500 bicycle lock is impervious to any lock picking attempts, but when used to lock a bike to a fire hydrant, it does nothing to protect the bike from a thief simply lifting the bike up and driving away.
Hopefully this has been useful in helping you to determine the right approach your organization can take to secure and maintain control of your data. I look forward to hearing any further points I might have missed.
SYS-CON Events announced today that ContentMX, the marketing technology and services company with a singular mission to increase engagement and drive more conversations for enterprise, channel and SMB technology marketers, has been named “Sponsor & Exhibitor Lounge Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 18th Cloud Expo, which will take place on June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York City, New York. “CloudExpo is a great opportunity to start a conversation with new prospects, but what happens after the...
May. 29, 2016 04:45 PM EDT Reads: 1,307
As machines are increasingly connected to the internet, it’s becoming easier to discover the numerous ways Industrial IoT (IIoT) is helping to shape the business world. This is exactly why we have decided to take a closer look at this pervasive movement and to examine the desire to connect more things! Now if you need a refresher on IIoT and how it is changing the world, take a moment and listen to Greg Gorbach with ARC Advisory Group. Gorbach believes, "IIoT will significantly change the worl...
May. 29, 2016 04:00 PM EDT Reads: 2,050
SYS-CON Events announced today Object Management Group® has been named “Media Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 18th International Cloud Expo, which will take place on June 7–9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY, and the 19th International Cloud Expo, which will take place on November 1–3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA.
May. 29, 2016 04:00 PM EDT Reads: 2,632
SYS-CON Events announced today the Docker Meets Kubernetes – Intro into the Kubernetes World, being held June 9, 2016, in conjunction with 18th Cloud Expo | @ThingsExpo, at the Javits Center in New York, NY. Register for 'Docker Meets Kubernetes Workshop' Here! This workshop led by Sebastian Scheele, co-founder of Loodse, introduces participants to Kubernetes (container orchestration). Through a combination of instructor-led presentations, demonstrations, and hands-on labs, participants learn ...
May. 29, 2016 02:00 PM EDT Reads: 2,024
The IoT is changing the way enterprises conduct business. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Eric Hoffman, Vice President at EastBanc Technologies, discuss how businesses can gain an edge over competitors by empowering consumers to take control through IoT. We'll cite examples such as a Washington, D.C.-based sports club that leveraged IoT and the cloud to develop a comprehensive booking system. He'll also highlight how IoT can revitalize and restore outdated business models, making them profitable...
May. 29, 2016 02:00 PM EDT Reads: 2,961
The IoTs will challenge the status quo of how IT and development organizations operate. Or will it? Certainly the fog layer of IoT requires special insights about data ontology, security and transactional integrity. But the developmental challenges are the same: People, Process and Platform. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Craig Sproule, CEO of Metavine, will demonstrate how to move beyond today's coding paradigm and share the must-have mindsets for removing complexity from the development proc...
May. 29, 2016 01:00 PM EDT Reads: 1,980
Customer experience has become a competitive differentiator for companies, and it’s imperative that brands seamlessly connect the customer journey across all platforms. With the continued explosion of IoT, join us for a look at how to build a winning digital foundation in the connected era – today and in the future. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Chris Nguyen, Group Product Marketing Manager at Adobe, will discuss how to successfully leverage mobile, rapidly deploy content, capture real-time d...
May. 29, 2016 12:45 PM EDT Reads: 1,681
In his session at 18th Cloud Expo, Andrew Cole, Director of Solutions Engineering at Peak 10, will discuss how the newest technology advances are reducing the cost and complexity of traditional business continuity and disaster recovery solutions. Attendees will: Learn why having a full disaster recovery strategy is more important now than ever before Explore the key drivers of a successful disaster recovery solution Achieve measurable operational and business value from a disaster recovery ...
May. 29, 2016 11:30 AM EDT Reads: 1,449
The cloud era has reached the stage where it is no longer a question of whether a company should migrate, but when. Enterprises have embraced the outsourcing of where their various applications are stored and who manages them, saving significant investment along the way. Plus, the cloud has become a defining competitive edge. Companies that fail to successfully adapt risk failure. The media, of course, continues to extol the virtues of the cloud, including how easy it is to get there. Migrating...
May. 29, 2016 11:15 AM EDT Reads: 623
As organizations shift towards IT-as-a-service models, the need for managing and protecting data residing across physical, virtual, and now cloud environments grows with it. Commvault can ensure protection, access and E-Discovery of your data – whether in a private cloud, a Service Provider delivered public cloud, or a hybrid cloud environment – across the heterogeneous enterprise. In his general session at 18th Cloud Expo, Randy De Meno, Chief Technologist - Windows Products and Microsoft Part...
May. 29, 2016 11:00 AM EDT Reads: 728
SYS-CON Events announced today that Hanu Software will exhibit at SYS-CON's 18th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Leveraging best-in-class people, processes, and technologies, Hanu provides high-quality, high-value software development and business process outsourcing services to independent software vendors (ISVs) and enterprises.
May. 29, 2016 11:00 AM EDT Reads: 1,438
What a difference a year makes. Organizations aren’t just talking about IoT possibilities, it is now baked into their core business strategy. With IoT, billions of devices generating data from different companies on different networks around the globe need to interact. From efficiency to better customer insights to completely new business models, IoT will turn traditional business models upside down. In the new customer-centric age, the key to success is delivering critical services and apps wit...
May. 29, 2016 10:30 AM EDT Reads: 1,285
Join us at Cloud Expo | @ThingsExpo 2016 – June 7-9 at the Javits Center in New York City and November 1-3 at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA – and deliver your unique message in a way that is striking and unforgettable by taking advantage of SYS-CON's unmatched high-impact, result-driven event / media packages.
May. 29, 2016 10:00 AM EDT Reads: 2,538
In his keynote at 18th Cloud Expo, Andrew Keys, Co-Founder of ConsenSys Enterprise, will provide an overview of the evolution of the Internet and the Database and the future of their combination – the Blockchain. Andrew Keys is Co-Founder of ConsenSys Enterprise. He comes to ConsenSys Enterprise with capital markets, technology and entrepreneurial experience. Previously, he worked for UBS investment bank in equities analysis. Later, he was responsible for the creation and distribution of life ...
May. 29, 2016 09:45 AM EDT Reads: 2,040
SYS-CON Events announced today that BMC Software has been named "Siver Sponsor" of SYS-CON's 18th Cloud Expo, which will take place on June 7-9, 2015 at the Javits Center in New York, New York. BMC is a global leader in innovative software solutions that help businesses transform into digital enterprises for the ultimate competitive advantage. BMC Digital Enterprise Management is a set of innovative IT solutions designed to make digital business fast, seamless, and optimized from mainframe to mo...
May. 29, 2016 09:30 AM EDT Reads: 2,310
SYS-CON Events announced today that Super Micro Computer, Inc., a global leader in Embedded and IoT solutions, will exhibit at SYS-CON's 18th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Supermicro (NASDAQ: SMCI), the leading innovator in high-performance, high-efficiency server technology, is a premier provider of advanced server Building Block Solutions® for Data Center, Cloud Computing, Enterprise IT, Hadoop/Big Data, HPC and ...
May. 29, 2016 09:15 AM EDT Reads: 744
SYS-CON Events announced today that MobiDev will exhibit at SYS-CON's 18th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. MobiDev is a software company that develops and delivers turn-key mobile apps, websites, web services, and complex software systems for startups and enterprises. Since 2009 it has grown from a small group of passionate engineers and business managers to a full-scale mobile software company with over 200 develope...
May. 29, 2016 08:15 AM EDT Reads: 2,761
SoftLayer operates a global cloud infrastructure platform built for Internet scale. With a global footprint of data centers and network points of presence, SoftLayer provides infrastructure as a service to leading-edge customers ranging from Web startups to global enterprises. SoftLayer's modular architecture, full-featured API, and sophisticated automation provide unparalleled performance and control. Its flexible unified platform seamlessly spans physical and virtual devices linked via a world...
May. 29, 2016 07:00 AM EDT Reads: 2,309
SYS-CON Events announced today that Alert Logic, Inc., the leading provider of Security-as-a-Service solutions for the cloud, will exhibit at SYS-CON's 18th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Alert Logic, Inc., provides Security-as-a-Service for on-premises, cloud, and hybrid infrastructures, delivering deep security insight and continuous protection for customers at a lower cost than traditional security solutions. Ful...
May. 29, 2016 06:45 AM EDT Reads: 2,961
How will your company move to the cloud while ensuring a solid security posture? Organizations from small to large are increasingly adopting cloud solutions to deliver essential business services at a much lower cost. According to cyber security experts, the frequency and severity of cyber-attacks are on the rise, causing alarm to businesses and customers across a variety of industries. To defend against exploits like these, a company must adopt a comprehensive security defense strategy that is ...
May. 29, 2016 06:30 AM EDT Reads: 656