Click here to close now.




















Welcome!

SDN Journal Authors: Elizabeth White, Dana Gardner, Chris Janz, Michael Jannery, Lori MacVittie

Related Topics: Microservices Expo, Java IoT, Industrial IoT, IoT User Interface, Agile Computing, SDN Journal

Microservices Expo: Blog Feed Post

Categorizing APIs

Quick: name some APIs! Which ones come to mind? Amazon? Twitter? Google Maps?

Quick: name some APIs! Which ones come to mind? Amazon? Twitter? Google Maps? Chances are, the APIs which came to mind are APIs which are open to any developer to use. But are these the only kinds of APIs that exist? What about Enterprise APIs?

In order to answer this question, let's look at how APIs can be categorized.

First of all, let's look at API Exposure. The two categories are:

  • External : Able to be used outside the organization.
  • Internal : Used only inside the organization

Second, let's look at API Protection. It may be one of three categories:

  • Open: Anybody can use the API, anonymously with no controls
  • Requiring Registration: Developers are identified with API Keys and usage is monitored accordingly
  • Enterprise: Goes beyond just developer registration, adding tight controls on sensitive data, integration with enterprise systems such as Identity Management and event monitoring (SIEM, Splunk, etc).

These axes are orthogonal. Using these axes, APIs divide into six categories. Let's look at the categories:

External APIs

Open External APIs
These are APIs which are open to anybody to access. Usually they take the form of read-only public data feeds.

An example is the Nobel Prize API, which allows a developer to query information about Nobel Prize winners. Another example is the Massachusetts Roadway Events API, which provides developers with access to the (many) roadworks projects happening in Massachusetts at any given moment.

External APIs requiring Registration
These are APIs which are open to any developer to use, but require registration. Once a developer registers, they typically get an API Key. It's important to note that the API Key is not necessarily used for authentication, but instead it is used for identification of the app developer. In this way, the API publisher can apply limits to the usage of their API, and track the usage also.

An example is the US Postal Service's Shipping API. Any developer can use this, but they must register first. The Google Maps API is another good example of a Managed External API. API Keys are required in order to use this API, but any developer can sign up for it. Another example is the Staples API which allows the Staples catalog to be queried. The data is not sensitive, but the developer access is controlled with API Keys.

External Enterprise APIs
These APIs are used to conduct business, or to access sensitive data such as health records. Documentation and information about the API is sometimes public, as in the case of some payments APIs. In many cases though, developer access to the API is by invitation only,  and the documentation may be private. An example is a large HMO in the US which provides an API to retrieve patient prescription information. Access to this API is tightly controlled. Another example, in the B2B space, is a large 401.K provider which allows its corporate customers to provision their new employees with 401.K plans via an API. Access to this API is also tightly controlled.

Other examples of Enterprise External APIs come from the "Internet of Things" where devices such as electricity meters transmit sensitive information via APIs, and this data must be tightly protected.

Enterprise External APIs are typically linked to other enterprise systems such as enterprise Identity Management (IdM).

Internal APIs
Just like on the Internet, lightweight REST APIs are taking over from heavyweight SOAP services inside the organization. However, SOAP and XML are still a fact of life, which means that Internal APIs typically span both XML and JSON.


Open Internal APIs
An example is a company directory API. It is open to all access.

Internal APIs requiring Registration
In some large organizations, as part of an initiative to allow internal developers to develop apps to be used by company employees, some functionality may be exposed as APIs. Access to these APIs is managed, so that developers can sign up, and usage of the APIs can be monitored. An example is an inventory lookup API, which checks the inventory of a particular item in a warehouse. This may be used to develop internal apps for personnel in the field. Internal developers sign up to use this API, get their API keys, and the API usage is monitored in order to prevent data-mining or excessive usage. However, data sensitivity itself is low.

Internal Enterprise APIs
These include APIs used to access private customer data, which may be subject to regulatory controls. Enterprise-class controls are required for these APIs. Even though its exposure is just internal to the organization, its data sensitivity is high. Remember that many privacy breaches come from inside the organization.

In the financial services sector, these include APIs to perform fund management operations such as buying and selling stock. For example, in one large Mutual Fund company, fund managers required the ability to manage their funds via iPad apps. This required access to Internal Enterprise APIs from iPads. This was delivered using tightly-controlled Internal Enterprise APIs.

In the healthcare sector, this category includes APIs which access patient data from inside hospitals and health insurer systems.

On top of simply registering developers, Internal Enterprise APIs require rules to be in place for sensitive data protection, and for a signed audit trail, to prove which user has accessed the API. Internal Enterprise APIs also must integrate with enterprise Identity Management, such as directories and single sign-on.

Conclusion
It is useful to categorize APIs into different axes, because it allows decisions to be made about how to manage them. It is a fact that the most well-known APIs are open APIs on the Internet, or APIs such as Google Maps for which any developer can obtain API Keys. However, although many people are not aware of them, Enterprise APIs are common and perform vital functions for businesses. They are exposed outside the organization and inside the organization also. By categorizing APIs, we can see their requirements clearly, and manage our APIs accordingly.

Read the original blog entry...

More Stories By Mark O'Neill

Mark O'Neill is VP Innovation at Axway - API and Identity. Previously he was CTO and co-founder at Vordel, which was acquired by Axway. A regular speaker at industry conferences and a contributor to SOA World Magazine and Cloud Computing Journal, Mark holds a degree in mathematics and psychology from Trinity College Dublin and graduate qualifications in neural network programming from Oxford University.

@CloudExpo Stories
Mobile, social, Big Data, and cloud have fundamentally changed the way we live. “Anytime, anywhere” access to data and information is no longer a luxury; it’s a requirement, in both our personal and professional lives. For IT organizations, this means pressure has never been greater to deliver meaningful services to the business and customers.
Container technology is sending shock waves through the world of cloud computing. Heralded as the 'next big thing,' containers provide software owners a consistent way to package their software and dependencies while infrastructure operators benefit from a standard way to deploy and run them. Containers present new challenges for tracking usage due to their dynamic nature. They can also be deployed to bare metal, virtual machines and various cloud platforms. How do software owners track the usag...
The Internet of Everything (IoE) brings together people, process, data and things to make networked connections more relevant and valuable than ever before – transforming information into knowledge and knowledge into wisdom. IoE creates new capabilities, richer experiences, and unprecedented opportunities to improve business and government operations, decision making and mission support capabilities.
There are many considerations when moving applications from on-premise to cloud. It is critical to understand the benefits and also challenges of this migration. A successful migration will result in lower Total Cost of Ownership, yet offer the same or higher level of robustness. In his session at 15th Cloud Expo, Michael Meiner, an Engineering Director at Oracle, Corporation, analyzed a range of cloud offerings (IaaS, PaaS, SaaS) and discussed the benefits/challenges of migrating to each offe...
Chuck Piluso presented a study of cloud adoption trends and the power and flexibility of IBM Power and Pureflex cloud solutions. Prior to Secure Infrastructure and Services, Mr. Piluso founded North American Telecommunication Corporation, a facilities-based Competitive Local Exchange Carrier licensed by the Public Service Commission in 10 states, serving as the company's chairman and president from 1997 to 2000. Between 1990 and 1997, Mr. Piluso served as chairman & founder of International Te...
One of the hottest areas in cloud right now is DRaaS and related offerings. In his session at 16th Cloud Expo, Dale Levesque, Disaster Recovery Product Manager with Windstream's Cloud and Data Center Marketing team, will discuss the benefits of the cloud model, which far outweigh the traditional approach, and how enterprises need to ensure that their needs are properly being met.
SYS-CON Events announced today that MobiDev, a software development company, will exhibit at the 17th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place November 3–5, 2015, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. MobiDev is a software development company with representative offices in Atlanta (US), Sheffield (UK) and Würzburg (Germany); and development centers in Ukraine. Since 2009 it has grown from a small group of passionate engineers and business managers to a full-scale mobi...
With SaaS use rampant across organizations, how can IT departments track company data and maintain security? More and more departments are commissioning their own solutions and bypassing IT. A cloud environment is amorphous and powerful, allowing you to set up solutions for all of your user needs: document sharing and collaboration, mobile access, e-mail, even industry-specific applications. In his session at 16th Cloud Expo, Shawn Mills, President and a founder of Green House Data, discussed h...
The Software Defined Data Center (SDDC), which enables organizations to seamlessly run in a hybrid cloud model (public + private cloud), is here to stay. IDC estimates that the software-defined networking market will be valued at $3.7 billion by 2016. Security is a key component and benefit of the SDDC, and offers an opportunity to build security 'from the ground up' and weave it into the environment from day one. In his session at 16th Cloud Expo, Reuven Harrison, CTO and Co-Founder of Tufin,...
In their session at 17th Cloud Expo, Hal Schwartz, CEO of Secure Infrastructure & Services (SIAS), and Chuck Paolillo, CTO of Secure Infrastructure & Services (SIAS), provide a study of cloud adoption trends and the power and flexibility of IBM Power and Pureflex cloud solutions. In his role as CEO of Secure Infrastructure & Services (SIAS), Hal Schwartz provides leadership and direction for the company.
Explosive growth in connected devices. Enormous amounts of data for collection and analysis. Critical use of data for split-second decision making and actionable information. All three are factors in making the Internet of Things a reality. Yet, any one factor would have an IT organization pondering its infrastructure strategy. How should your organization enhance its IT framework to enable an Internet of Things implementation? In his session at @ThingsExpo, James Kirkland, Red Hat's Chief Arch...
Malicious agents are moving faster than the speed of business. Even more worrisome, most companies are relying on legacy approaches to security that are no longer capable of meeting current threats. In the modern cloud, threat diversity is rapidly expanding, necessitating more sophisticated security protocols than those used in the past or in desktop environments. Yet companies are falling for cloud security myths that were truths at one time but have evolved out of existence.
Digital Transformation is the ultimate goal of cloud computing and related initiatives. The phrase is certainly not a precise one, and as subject to hand-waving and distortion as any high-falutin' terminology in the world of information technology. Yet it is an excellent choice of words to describe what enterprise IT—and by extension, organizations in general—should be working to achieve. Digital Transformation means: handling all the data types being found and created in the organizat...
Public Cloud IaaS started its life in the developer and startup communities and has grown rapidly to a $20B+ industry, but it still pales in comparison to how much is spent worldwide on IT: $3.6 trillion. In fact, there are 8.6 million data centers worldwide, the reality is many small and medium sized business have server closets and colocation footprints filled with servers and storage gear. While on-premise environment virtualization may have peaked at 75%, the Public Cloud has lagged in adop...
SYS-CON Events announced today that HPM Networks will exhibit at the 17th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on November 3–5, 2015, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. For 20 years, HPM Networks has been integrating technology solutions that solve complex business challenges. HPM Networks has designed solutions for both SMB and enterprise customers throughout the San Francisco Bay Area.
The time is ripe for high speed resilient software defined storage solutions with unlimited scalability. ISS has been working with the leading open source projects and developed a commercial high performance solution that is able to grow forever without performance limitations. In his session at Cloud Expo, Alex Gorbachev, President of Intelligent Systems Services Inc., shared foundation principles of Ceph architecture, as well as the design to deliver this storage to traditional SAN storage co...
MuleSoft has announced the findings of its 2015 Connectivity Benchmark Report on the adoption and business impact of APIs. The findings suggest traditional businesses are quickly evolving into "composable enterprises" built out of hundreds of connected software services, applications and devices. Most are embracing the Internet of Things (IoT) and microservices technologies like Docker. A majority are integrating wearables, like smart watches, and more than half plan to generate revenue with ...
The Cloud industry has moved from being more than just being able to provide infrastructure and management services on the Cloud. Enter a new era of Cloud computing where monetization’s services through the Cloud are an essential piece of strategy to feed your organizations bottom-line, your revenue and Profitability. In their session at 16th Cloud Expo, Ermanno Bonifazi, CEO & Founder of Solgenia, and Ian Khan, Global Strategic Positioning & Brand Manager at Solgenia, discussed how to easily o...
Growth hacking is common for startups to make unheard-of progress in building their business. Career Hacks can help Geek Girls and those who support them (yes, that's you too, Dad!) to excel in this typically male-dominated world. Get ready to learn the facts: Is there a bias against women in the tech / developer communities? Why are women 50% of the workforce, but hold only 24% of the STEM or IT positions? Some beginnings of what to do about it! In her Opening Keynote at 16th Cloud Expo, S...
The speed of software changes in growing and large scale rapid-paced DevOps environments presents a challenge for continuous testing. Many organizations struggle to get this right. Practices that work for small scale continuous testing may not be sufficient as the requirements grow. In his session at DevOps Summit, Marc Hornbeek, Sr. Solutions Architect of DevOps continuous test solutions at Spirent Communications, explained the best practices of continuous testing at high scale, which is rele...